Notes: ssh- servers and clients.

Notes: ssh- servers and clients.


This post is tagged with notes, such posts will be documentations of stuff that I learned or think that can be saved as notes. Also, they can be shared and is open for comments/opinions.
Concept inspiration: one of my seniors sayan.

I remember the uncertainty of concepts I had when I initially started working with the interactions between local machines and remote machines.
I figured out am not alone, so I thought documenting the same would be a good idea, err… maybe.

A step-to-step guide of the commands can be easily found. So, if you are here, you ain’t sure about the concepts or how ssh works.
One such guide that I liked.  Come back here after you have read the guide. 😉

It becomes tedious when someone is experimenting with remote machines, VMs, etc, and has to login to his machines with a password every time.

SSH login?

After having created the public and private ssh-keys using ssh-keygen, using ssh-copy-id one can copy the public key to remote-host.


It copies the public key to the remote-host(server).

remote-host? remote-machine? server? client?

client-machine: client machine can be your local machine and has openssh-clients package already installed (well, most of the times).

server-machine:  server machines can be the Virtual machines that you created on your local machine or the remote hosts. Server machines need to have openssh-server( sshd) package installed and enabled(active/running state).
Some distros do not have it by default.

check the status of the sshd service:
$ systemctl status sshd

enable the service:
$ systemctl enable sshd

start the service:
$ systemctl start sshd

Cooked this up: A pictorial explanation.

There is another situation when the same machine acts as both a client and the server, as obvious it may sound, ssh service needs to be running on the client as well.

that’s all fellas! Thanks for reading.


Fedora 25 Release Party – Bangalore

Fedora 25 Release Party – Bangalore

As we all know, Fedora released its 25th version at the end of November ! So, we had a Fedora 25 Release Party on the 10th of December, 2016, organised by Sumantro Mukherjee, Sudhir Dharanendraiah and Sankarshan Mukhopadhyay at Christ University, Bangalore.
The event was a success with fresh energy, the Christ University students from freshman year who were new to Linux, along with few old faces.

Introducing Fedora 25

We had two segments of the event: one about Fedora’s new features and another about how one can start contributing to Fedora projects. Vipul Siddharth interacted with the new folks and what they can expect from the event. Around 50 people attended the event. We welcomed new contributors, helped them get Fedora 25 workstations, put up their first websites and of course distributed fedora stickers.

Introducing what’s new in Fedora

During the initiation of the event, Sumantro Mukherjee spoke on the new features introduced in Fedora 25. His talk covered the features in depth:
Inclusion of Wayland in Fedora 25 by default, Rust support on Fedora, Fedora Media Writer as Primary Downloadable, IBus Emoji Typing, etc.


Sumantro Mukherjee speaking on new features of Fedora 25.


Adding on to that, Sudhir spoke on the endeavours of the QA team and how the various packages went through the testing process. He also explained that Fedora uses the latest kernel following which we had the Cake to add more sugar to the event(literally) 😉


Sudhir Dharanendraiah and others cutting the cake.




We later had two more talks: I spoke on how one can contribute to various Fedora projects and Vipul on basics of Git.
I interacted mostly with the first year students who were willing to know on how can they get started with open source. From joining the mailing lists to getting help on IRC, etc. Following this, I spoke on Fedora-Hubs, the new project for contributors to hack on. The talk covered the architecture of Fedora-Hubs, the working of Hubs and Widgets and how one can start contributing to the project.


Devyani Kota speaking on getting started with Fedora.


Later, Vipul gave a talk on Git basics and helped students host their first website on There were a lot of smiles after this segment ! Cheers to all the new contributors.


Vipul Siddharth speaking on the basics of Git.


Special Thanks

Special thanks to the faculty at Christ University who were very supportive and the efforts Vipul Siddharth and Prakash Mishra put in to make this event successful. This event ended with good signs with a lot of new contributors willing to learn and contribute to Fedora projects.

Wearing a Red Hat !

Wearing a Red Hat !

Hola reader !
2016 had its lows and highs ! Struggles, achievements, new journeys and much more.
Here I am in the last month of the year !

I joined as an intern in July, working on gdeploy: an Ansible based deployment tool for GlusterFS. From trying to figure out how it works to writing ansible playbooks and config files, I’ve come a long way ^_^

9f0da2dae3b84d649684a3e43a191f20                       Picture Courtesy : Google images.

Today is my first day in the Storage Engineering team at Red Hat 🙂
I will actively be involved with GlusterFS and other Red Hat products.
Am sure gonna have a steep learning curve working with new technologies, looking forward to hacking on challenging projects.

A quote that has been there alongside this year and kept me going :

“Your goals don’t care if its the weekend ! ” -Anonymous


Cover Picture Courtesy :

Fedora-Hubs : Getting Started

Fedora-Hubs : Getting Started

The definition for fedora-hubs has changed over the months !
Hubs has come a long way from when it was initially started. From new milestones, to new goals, new road-maps.


There have been new contributors willing to contribute to hubs, but facing issues while setting it up locally. Thus an initiative to help out new contributors hack their way into the project. Few common terms and words, not so common to the non-hubs world 😛

To begin with: We have taken efforts in keeping the README file updated. You might want to keep looking back to this file while setting it up locally.
Below, I have explained a tiny bit more in detail about a few things that might be confusing or where one can face issues, also how these files happen to be inter-related.
After having installed all the dependencies and cloned the project, you need to configure the project to authenticate against Ipsilon, fedora’s multi-protocol Identity Provider service.

oidc-register --debug http://localhost:5000

If one faces an error regarding verification of certificate, the following command will replace httplib2’s ca cert file, else you’ll be thrown back since you don’t have the http setting.

cp /etc/pki/ca-trust/extracted/pem/tls-ca-bundle.pem ~/.virtualenvs/hubs/lib/python2.7/site-packages/httplib2/cacerts.txt

You also might want to keep clearing/refreshing your cookies. After having created the local configuration file as mentioned in the README, one needs to create the database.
Further which one can finish running the app by starting the devel server with their local config file.

Few not-so-common terminologies:
Hub: A hub can be associated with a page displaying the info that concerns the hub.
Widget: The various sized rectangular cards on a hub-page are termed as widgets.
One can find the various widgets under the widgets/ dir in the source-code.
Every widget has a respective html file under the widgets/templates dir.
User-Hub page: The hub page of a fas (fedora account system) user that lists down the                                          widgets he/she has configured and wishes to display on his/her page.
While hacking on the project, you might want to navigate to localhost:5000/ to view the widget on a user-hub page.
Group-Hub page: The hub page of the various teams such as Infrastructure, Design-team,                                    Commops, Marketing, i18n.
Similarly, while hacking on a widgets relevant to groups, you need to navigate to localhost:5000/ to view the respective widget on the group-hub page.

Again, when hacking on a new widget, according to the hub page you wish to display, one might want to add it either to the hubs/ file or to the file. One can look into it under the “Stubbing out a new widget” section of the README file.

You might see something similar to this on your localhost :

Screenshot from 2015-12-08 19-23-41

So, this is a group-hub page, Group:Infrastructure here, listing down the widgets with respect to the infrastructure group. Widgets are listed in the same order as added with their index values, in the file under the Infrastructure team.

This is a user-hub page:

Screenshot from 2016-03-17 03-28-52

fas_username: devyani7, listing down the widgets configured in the hubs/ file. Here, this user-hub page can be configured as the user wishes his/her page to appear to the visitors.

One channel where you can drop/lurk for further queries: #fedora-hubs on freenode.
We have weekly-meetings every Tuesday at 14:00 UTC 🙂
We also have a mailing-list:

Sortable !

Sortable !

I wanted to finish working on this feature by the end of the previous week but university exams were keeping me busy. As they say, Better late than never ! eh? 🙂

Quick Recap : I was working on the bookmark-modal window which would feature the hub pages bookmarked by the user, that the bookmarks-bar cannot hold (overflowing bookmarks)

Week 1:
I hacked on the master.html file to get the edit_bookmarks modal window to pop-up on hitting the *edit* button. Added few hacks on style.css as well to bring it closer to Mizmo’s mockup.
Screenshot from 2016-06-19 11-52-28.png

Screenshot from 2016-06-08 23-08-49.png

Week 2:
Making the bookmarks toggle !
During the Hub’s meeting, Sayan suggested that the mockup required extra styling that wasn’t preferred. We wanted to use fedora-bootstrap alone, so that the modal window looked bootstrappy, thus dropping the idea to add styling.
The user is to be able to re-order the bookmarks at his will, so Pierre suggested to use something like jquery sortable() but using bootstrap. I tried experimenting using jqueryui and after several attempts, it finally worked ! 🙂 Though there is still more experiments to be done…

Screenshot from 2016-06-19 12-06-00.png

Screenshot from 2016-06-18 23-59-41.png

Preview : This week I plan to work on providing suggestions to the user to re-order hub-bookmarks depending on the frequency of the hub pages he/she visits often.

Till next week ! Good day to you 🙂

Scroll ! Think ! Bookmark !

Scroll ! Think ! Bookmark !

Hi there,
so we are in the second half of the year and its been quite exciting so far 😛
Looking forward to amazing times !

It’s been a week since the coding period began, the first feature that we plan to work on is the bookmark feature. Soon there will be quite some hub-pages for Users and also for groups, such as Infrastructure, Design, Marketing, Commops, etc.
So it might get difficult to keep track of the pages a user wishes to follow closely.
Currently, the hub pages are just added to the bookmarks bar.
We plan to provide the user with a *EDIT* bookmarks option, which would list down the hub pages that were bookmarked by the user initially, followed by the pages that are most frequently opened by the user, that exist in the overflowed list and not in the main bookmarks bar.
Aye ! that’s confusing 😛

Screenshot from 2016-05-31 16-59-55

So, we see here that the bookmarks were just added to the main bar.
Instead, an ‘Edit bookmarks’ option will be listing the hub pages that exist in the overflowed list, with those that user bookmarked in the top of the list.


Thanks to Mizmo, Sayan, Pingou for providing a few pointers on the same in yesterday’s Hubs-meeting ! Discussed ideas were that the bookmarks shouldn’t change dynamically, rather we’ll be providing the user a suggestion to move the frequently opened bookmarks further up in the bookmarks list.
This is what I plan to accomplish this week. *fingers crossed* 🙂

A small info : We have our weekly Hubs meeting in #fedora-hubs at 14:00 UTC on Tuesdays. Anyone interested can attend or if you have any suggestions; they are most welcome !

That’s all folks ! See you next week 🙂

Fedora-Hubs: Google Summer of Code 2016

Fedora-Hubs: Google Summer of Code 2016


A warm hello to the Summer Coding World.

Devyani is a CS Undergraduate who will be working on Fedora-Hubs as her Google Summer of Code 2016 Project.

The Google Summer of Code 2016 results were declared on 22nd April 2016. The Community Bonding Period has been amazing: meeting like-minded people, making new friends and being a part of this awesome community !

Initially in May, I started to hack around the Feed-Widget of the Project, Fedora-Hubs.
The project is available on Pagure.

I had to go through the documentation, and hubs/widgets code more in detail thus, that week was pretty much a reading week rather than coding week. Hubs is implemented using Flask, which uses Flask-SQLAlchemy. Flask-SQLAlchemy wasn’t exactly my strength, especially the models and the relationships that exist. Hubs are related to widgets by many-to-many relationship. I went thoroughly through the Flask-SQLAlchemy documentation and googled more about establishing relationships amongst the fields. I tried to write down the code to establish relation between the databases to understand the connections between the various fields: Hubs, Users, Widgets 😛
This helped me a lot to understand the basic structure of Hubs.

I also had to go through the Feed-Widget to work on getting similar threads of the mailing-list posts together based on Mizmo‘s mockups. That’s still a work in progress, though.
Largely the summer goals will be to integrate hubs successfully, with all the widgets working efficiently. By the summer, we plan to provide the user with an individual hubs-page featuring the widgets; a cool bookmarks bar for the user to switch tabs at his will; provide info regarding the unread notifications that he/she follows or is subscribed to.
We also plan to work on the badges-widget before Flock 2016 that displays a cool path of the badges that can be achieved. For the more interested folks, I have my project proposal updated on the wiki 🙂

For more updates on Hubs, follow me @devyanikota. I go by the nick devyani7 on freenode, you can find me lurking on #dgplug, #fedora-apps, #fedora-hubs. My Github profile and Pagure profile.

Until next time, Happy hacking !